Do you think there is no universal language for backend development? You can take an object-oriented and efficient C, but you have to put up with many limitations. Or Python – then the process will be fast, but the code itself is slow. Or Erlang – with it you will create highly parallel distributed applications, but it will not fit into all projects. Or Enterprise Java, but it is heavy.
However, there is a language that will successfully level out all these “buts”. Go (Golang) is ideal if you need to write something productive and at the same time easy to support. According to the Stack Overflow survey, it is among the three most popular languages in 2020. So learning Go is cool, promising and profitable.
What’s good about Go?
Google has created a language that is devoid of the shortcomings of many other programming languages, absorbing only the best:
Simple and clear syntax
It deliberately ignores the typical properties of modern OOP languages: classes, inheritance, generics, annotations, constructors, exceptions. All this is simply missing here, making Go extremely simple and clear.
Another fact in favor of the language: in PHP 67 keywords are used, while in Go they are only 25.
Go language has an excellent multithreading model. The code in it is executed in parallel and asynchronously – this study has paid much attention. For example, there is no access control for variables.
It is much higher than Python or Ruby. In a fraction of a second you compile very fast code – like in C++ and C, and that says something! It consumes many times less resources than Java.
A large number of libraries
They can be used for almost any task. Besides the standard language, it supports many third parties, the number of which is constantly growing. It also works effectively with C and C++ libraries. It is even noted that Go-libraries are in fact “wrappers” above C-libraries.
Compilation is the main advantage of the language. It takes literally seconds. You do not need to declare the type of a variable in the code – it is set automatically when you assign a value to it. There is no need to declare variables in advance.
The whole project is compiled into one binary file without dependencies. And the memory is not clogged – there is a garbage collector.
Ecosystem and support
This is an onsourcing project. So, any developer can complement and improve it.
Moreover, Google itself continues to support and develop its language. It is planned to release version 2.0. They promise that it will include a new improved error handling mechanism and generalized programming tools.
The “Go 2.0” wiki page on GitHub, where you can collect comments and suggestions for language improvement.
Go is simple and convenient, so it is no wonder that it is used by such famous giants as IBM, Intel, Adobe, Medium, BBC, Canonical.
Large companies that use Go
What can you do on Go?
Almost everything. But there are three main directions:
- Network software;
- Console utilities;
- Backend: microservices, cross-platform mobile and web applications.
Golang is not only suitable for development related to machine learning: here you should still take the same Python with low-level optimizations for C/C++ and CUDA. Everything else can be done on Go – the functionality is limitless.
Docker is one of the most famous projects written on Go. It is a system for creating isolated virtual machines with any environment necessary for testing applications.
Learn Go, Earn More
Cherry on the cake. Among other things, Golang proved to be the highest paid programming language. First place Go shares with Elixir. In second place – Scala, the third – Ruby.
Who is suitable for?
Since the syntax is very light, the compiler fixes bugs itself, and the development environment as if helps to write code, you can learn Go even for those who have no programming knowledge at all. You will quickly understand what is going on.
For programmers who are already writing in another language
Especially in Python or PHP – usually Go goes after these languages or uses them in a bunch (Python/Go and PHP/Go).